1. Pleurotus citrinopileatus (golden oyster mushroom)
2. P. djamor (flamingo, salmon or pink oyster mushroom)
3. P. eryngii (king oyster mushroom)
4. P. ostreatus (oyster mushroom)
5. P. florida (the Florida oyster)
6. P. pulmonarius (the lung oyster, Phoenix mushroom)
7. P. cornucopiae (branched oyster mushroom)
8. P. columbinus
9. P. cystidiosus
10. P. flabellatus
Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation
Required Ingredients :
1) Paddy Straw : Straw of local paddy is usually good for paddy straw mushroom cultivation. Specially straw from paddy variety with white primodia, narrow, stiff and un-threshed(by bullock or tractor) is required. Paddy straw when trodden by bullocks or tractor, loose stiffness and easily rots when it comes in contact with water, gets compressed which is not good for mushroom mycelia growth. As such straw obtained through harvesting by beating the straw bundles with hand are always good for mushroom cultivation. Only the top and panicle portion is removed. Paddy straw should be harvested leaving only 4” to 6” from the ground level. This is because on fungal species is found at the base portion which caused rotting and contamination of the straw subsequently. Paddy straw from variety C.R.1014, 1242, 141, T90, is good for preparing mushroom beds.A mushroom bed of 2 feet length, 2 ft wide and 2 ft height is prepared from 10 to 20 bundles of straw as per the thickness of the straw bundles. First hold on the top of straw bundle and loosen the binding of the straw bundle by doing so the leaves come out. If leaves will remain, it will hold more water for long time and cause rotting of the straw soon.
2) Mushroom Spawn: For one bed of mushroom 350 to 400 gm of mushroom spawn (seed) required. The culture should be free from infection.
3) Nutrition : For cultivation of paddy straw mushroom, powder of bengalgram, lentil, horsegram, red gram, blackgram or green gram and wheat bran and paddy husk is used. Powder obtained from bengalgram with its seed coat gives more yield form powder of bengalgram with seed coat.
Material required to prepare one bed of Mushroom :
Straw bundle :- 15-20 bundles of straw OR 15 kg (as per thickness of bundle)
Mushroom Spawn(Seed) :- One bottle Or 350 gm
Nutrition :- 250 gm of Bengal gram or red gram
Bed Size :- 2 ft x 2 ft OR 2.5 ft x 2.5 ft
Space :- 3ft x 3ft OR 4ft x 4ft ( 10 sq ft to 16 sq. ft)
Cultivation Method :
1) Remove leaves of the straw bundle and cut to 2ft size with a straw cutter. The required number of straw bundles are soaked in a tank of clean water for 12 to 16 hours. Water from ditches, ponds etc which are dirty should not be used. At the time of soaking use 100 ml of formalin and 8 grams of bavistin per 100 liters of water. Where electric heaters are available hot water should be used for treating the straw bundles.
2) Remove the straw bundles from water and keep in standing positions for 5 to 6 hours so as to drain out the excess water from the outside and inside the straw bundles and only 75 % moisture will remain in the straw bundles.
3) Spawn of 3 to 4 weeks should be used. Break the bottle and remove the glasses. Use cotton to remove small glass piece if stick to the spawn. Divide the spawn to 4 equal parts and make small pieces of spawn having size of thumb finger.
4) Use 250 gms of Dal powder grinded from whole grain of bengalgram. Else use paddy husk or rice bran to reduce the cost of cultivation. It should also be divided to 4 equal parts.
5) After arranging straw, spawn and nutrition, prepare the beds. First put a layer of straw of 6-9 inches height. See that the bases of straw are towards outer side and top portion are inside. Let the direction of the first layer be east-west or north-south. Take one part of the spawn out of the 4 parts and put the spawn pieces on the bed leaving 3 inches from outer side and at 3-4 inches distance. Sprinkle the dal powder of Bengalgram or redgram over the spawn blocks and nearby area.
6) Over the first layer, put again 6 to 9 inches height of straw. Arrange the straw on the opposite direction of the first layer (East-west of North-south). Take of another part of spawn and put the spawn piece at a distance of 3 to 4 inches as in the first layer. Also sprinkle the dal powder over it as done previously.
7) Put the third layer of 6- 9 inches of straw in parallel direction to the 1st layer and put rest 2 parts of spawn all over the third layer and sprinkle 2 parts of Dal powder too.
8) Cover the third layer with the final 4th layer of straw of 2 inches width, parallel to the 2nd layer. Now press the layer at the top so that the mycelium can grow well. Cut the spilled straw all around the bed with the help of a seizure.
9) After the bed is ready, cover it with white polythene or stitched sheet of cement/fertilizer bags. Remove the polythene sheet each day and spray water on portion of bed where straw is dried.
10) After 9 to 10 days when mycelium growth is observed, the polythene cover is removed exposing the bed to open air. After one day of removal of sheet, water is sprayed over the bed 2-3 times a day to maintain the moisture level of the bed.
11) Harvesting : First flush of mushroom comes out after 15 days of sowing. The mushroom should be harvested at bud stage whose demand is more in the market and also tasty on cooking.
After 14-15 days first phase of harvesting is done giving 90 % of the yield. Then after 9-10 days in the second phase of harvest rest 10 % yield is obtained.
Various substrates used for Mushroom cultivation.Today there is various alternates available to traditional straws or hay. Sterilization of straw and its preparation for bed require lots of hard work and skill.These issues led to the development of alternate substrates which require less work and skills for producing good quality mushrooms.
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